Effect of health coaching on blood pressure control and behavioral modification among patients with hypertension: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Int J Nurs Stud. 2023 Feb:138:104406. doi: 10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2022.104406. Epub 2022 Nov 14.


Background: Health coaching has emerged as a potential supporting tool for improving hypertension health behavior. However, health coaching efficacy on hypertension has not been reviewed systematically.

Objective: To evaluate the effects of health coaching on blood pressure and behavioral changes among patients with hypertension in randomized controlled trials.

Design: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Methods: We searched Medline (via PubMed), Web of Science, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Proquest, and Scopus from inception to November 30, 2021. All randomized controlled trials that estimated the effects of health coaching on blood pressure and behavioral changes in adults with hypertension were included. The Cochrane risk-of-bias tool was used to evaluate the quality of the included studies. Standardized mean differences (SMD) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using random-effects or fixed-effects meta-analysis. Sensitivity analysis and subgroup analysis were also conducted.

Results: A total of 1655 studies were screened and 12 randomized controlled trials were selected for inclusion, with 2497 participants were included. Most of the studies were at low risk of bias and the quality of evidence was high. The meta-analysis demonstrated that health coaching could significantly reduce systolic blood pressure (SMD: -0.26, 95 % CI: -0.39, -0.13, p < 0.001) and diastolic blood pressure in hypertension (SMD: -0.13, 95 % CI: -0.22, -0.03, p = 0.009). In addition, health coaching showed statistically significant positive effects on dietary behaviors (SMD: 0.76, 95 % CI: 0.08, 1.44, p = 0.02) and self-efficacy (SMD: 0.39, 95 % CI: 0.05, 0.73, p = 0.02). Subgroup analysis indicated that the most common and effective type of health coaching was the phone-based interventions (systolic blood pressure: SMD: -0.27, 95 % CI: -0.44, -0.10, p = 0.002; diastolic blood pressure: SMD: -0.14, 95 % CI: -0.25, -0.03, p = 0.02). The effects of nurse-delivered interventions were larger than other health care professionals (systolic blood pressure: SMD: -0.42, 95 % CI: -0.68, -0.16, p = 0.002; diastolic blood pressure: SMD: -0.19, 95 % CI: -0.35, -0.04, p = 0.02).

Conclusion: Current evidence suggested that health coaching could reduce blood pressure, improve dietary behaviors, and increase self-efficacy among patients with hypertension and thus could be an effective and alternative method in the management of hypertension. The most common and effective types of health coaching were phone-based and nurse-delivered interventions. Thus, more strategies and policies may be needed to implement these types of interventions to more patients with hypertension.

Keywords: Blood pressure; Coaching; Health behavior; Hypertension; Meta-analysis; Self efficacy.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Systematic Review
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Behavior Therapy
  • Blood Pressure
  • Humans
  • Hypertension* / therapy
  • Mentoring*
  • Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic