Increased susceptibility to develop severe forms of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in early age is a significant hallmark of an underlying primary immunodeficiency (PID). Here, we present immunologic and genetic evaluations of a 3-year-old child who was born to first-cousins parents and presented with recurrent infections, failure to thrive, and severe EBV-related infection and proliferation. A diagnosis of diffuse large B cell lymphoma was made and the immunological workup was suggestive of T cell immunodeficiency. Unfortunately, the patient succumbed to EBV-related lymphoma. Whole-exome sequencing revealed a novel homozygous mutation, c.991del.C; p. Q331Sfs*6 in the SLP76 gene. The SLP76 protein, a TCR signaling molecule, was recently linked to a human disease of the immune system. In order to examine the effect of this new SLP76 mutation on T cell signaling, a SLP76-deficient Jurkat-derived T cell line was transduced either with wild-type (WT), or with the specific SLP76 mutant, or with a mock vector. Downstream TCR signaling events, including ERK1/2 phosphorylation, CD69 expression, and Ca2 + mobilization, were reduced in cells harboring the reported mutation, linking this novel mutation to the expected immunological outcome. SLP76 deficiency should be added to the growing list of monogenetic diseases that predispose affected individuals to acquire severe and uncontrolled EBV infections and to develop substantial complications. This case further links mutations in the SLP76 gene to a significant human immunodeficiency and extends its clinical phenotype.
Keywords: Combined immunodeficiency (CID); EBV; ITK; Primary immunodeficiency (PID); SLP76; Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID); T cell receptor (TCR) signaling.
© 2022. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.