Scheuermann's kyphosis: update on pathophysiology and surgical treatment

EFORT Open Rev. 2022 Dec 7;7(11):782-791. doi: 10.1530/EOR-22-0063.


Scheuermann's Kyphosis (SK) is a rigid spinal kyphosis. Several theories have been proposed concerning its pathogenesis, but it is, to this day, still unknown. It has a prevalence of 0.4-8.3% in the population with a higher incidence in females. Clinical examination with x-rays is needed to differentiate and confirm this diagnosis. Non-surgical management is reserved for smaller deformities and in skeletally immature patients, whereas surgery is recommended for higher deformities. Combined anterior and posterior approach was considered the gold standard for the surgical treatment of this disease, but there is an increasing trend toward posterior-only approaches especially with use of segmental fixation. This study reviews the pathophysiology of SK while proposing a treatment algorithm for its management.

Keywords: fusion levels; scheuermann’s kyphosis; surgical management; treatment algorithm.