Metabolomics application for the design of an optimal diet

J Prev Med Hyg. 2022 Oct 17;63(2 Suppl 3):E142-E149. doi: 10.15167/2421-4248/jpmh2022.63.2S3.2755. eCollection 2022 Jun.


Precision nutrition is an emerging branch of nutrition science that aims to use modern omics technologies (genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics) to assess an individual's response to specific foods or dietary patterns and thereby determine the most effective diet or lifestyle interventions to prevent or treat specific diseases. Metabolomics is vital to nearly every aspect of precision nutrition. It can be targeted or untargeted, and it has many applications. Indeed, it can be used to comprehensively characterize the thousands of chemicals in foods, identify food by-products in human biofluids or tissues, characterize nutrient deficiencies or excesses, monitor biochemical responses to dietary interventions, track long- or short-term dietary habits, and guide the development of nutritional therapies. Indeed, metabolomics can be coupled with genomics and proteomics to study and advance the field of precision nutrition. Integrating omics with epidemiological and clinical data will begin to define the beneficial effects of human food metabolites. In this review, we present the metabolome and its relationship to precision nutrition. Moreover, we describe the different techniques used in metabolomics and present how metabolomics has been applied to advance the field of precision nutrition by providing notable examples and cases.

Keywords: Food metabolome; Mediterranean diet; Metabolomics; NMR; Precision nutrition.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Diet*
  • Humans