Polymorphisms, diet and nutrigenomics

J Prev Med Hyg. 2022 Oct 17;63(2 Suppl 3):E125-E141. doi: 10.15167/2421-4248/jpmh2022.63.2S3.2754. eCollection 2022 Jun.


Every human being possesses an exclusive nutritional blueprint inside their genes. Bioactive food components and nutrients affect the expression of such genes. Nutrigenomics is the science that analyzes gene-nutrient interactions (nutrigenetics), which can lead to the development of personalized nutritional recommendations to maintain optimal health and prevent disease. Genomic diversity among various ethnic groups might affect nutrients bioavailability as well as their metabolism. Nutrigenomics combines different branches of science including nutrition, bioinformatics, genomics, molecular biology, molecular medicine, and epidemiology. Genes regulate intake and metabolism of different nutrients, while nutrients positively or negatively influence the expression of a number of genes; testing of specific genetic polymorphisms may therefore become a useful tool to manage weight loss and to fully understand gene-nutrient interactions. Indeed, several approaches are used to study gene-nutrient interactions: epigenetics, the study of genome modification not related to changes in nucleotide sequence; transcriptomics, the study of tissue-specific and time-specific RNA transcripts; proteomics, the study of proteins involved in biological processes; and metabolomics, the study of changes of primary and secondary metabolites in body fluids and tissues. Hence, the use of nutrigenomics to improve and optimize a healthy, balanced diet in clinical settings could be an effective approach for long-term lifestyle changes that might lead to consistent weight loss and improve quality of life.

Keywords: Metabolomics; Nutrigenetics; Nutrigenomics; Physical activity; Precision nutrition.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Diet*
  • Humans
  • Nutrigenomics*
  • Polymorphism, Genetic*
  • Quality of Life
  • Weight Loss*