Differentially expressed glycoproteins in pre- and post-digital rectal examination urine samples for detecting aggressive prostate cancer

Proteomics. 2023 Apr;23(7-8):e2200023. doi: 10.1002/pmic.202200023. Epub 2023 Jan 26.


Urinary glycoproteins associated with aggressive prostate cancer (AG-PCa) were previously reported using post-digital rectal examination (DRE) urine specimens. To explore the potential of using pre-DRE urine specimens for detecting AG-PCa, we compared glycoproteins between pre- and post-DRE urine specimens, verified the previously identified post-DRE AG-PCa-associated urinary glycoproteins in pre-DRE urine specimens, and explored potential new glycoproteins for AG-PCa detection in pre-DRE urine specimens. Quantitative glycoproteomic data were acquired for 154 pre-DRE urine specimens from 41 patients with no cancer at biopsy, 48 patients with non-AG-PCa (Gleason score = 6), and 65 patients with AG-PCa (Gleason score 7 or above). Compared to glycopeptides from the post-DRE urine data, humoral immunity-related proteins were enriched in pre-DRE urine samples, whereas cell mediated immune response proteins were enriched in post-DRE urine samples. Analyses of AG-PCa-associated glycoproteins from pre-DRE urine revealed that the three urinary glycoproteins, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), prostatic acid phosphatase (ACPP), and CD97 antigen (CD97) that were previously identified in post-DRE urine samples, were also observed as AG-PCa associated glycoproteins in pre-DRE urine. In addition, we identified three new glycoproteins, fibrillin 1 (FBN1), vitronectin (VTN), and hemicentin 2 (HMCN2), to be potentially associated with AG-PCa in pre-DRE urine specimens. In summary, glycoprotein profiles differ between pre- and post-DRE urine specimens. The identified AG-PCa-associated glycoproteins may be further evaluated in large cohort of pre-DRE urine specimens for detecting clinically significant PCa.

Keywords: aggressive prostate cancer; digital rectal examination; glycoproteomics; mass spectrometry; urinary glycoproteins.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Digital Rectal Examination*
  • Glycoproteins
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Neoplasm Grading
  • Prostate-Specific Antigen
  • Prostatic Neoplasms* / diagnosis
  • Prostatic Neoplasms* / pathology


  • Prostate-Specific Antigen
  • Glycoproteins