Management of Thyroid Eye Disease: A Consensus Statement by the American Thyroid Association and the European Thyroid Association

Thyroid. 2022 Dec;32(12):1439-1470. doi: 10.1089/thy.2022.0251. Epub 2022 Dec 8.


Thyroid eye disease (TED) remains challenging for clinicians to evaluate and manage. Novel therapies have recently emerged, and their specific roles are still being determined. Most patients with TED develop eye manifestations while being treated for hyperthyroidism and under the care of endocrinologists. Endocrinologists, therefore, have a key role in diagnosis, initial management, and selection of patients who require referral to specialist care. Given that the need for guidance to endocrinologists charged with meeting the needs of patients with TED transcends national borders, and to maximize an international exchange of knowledge and practices, the American Thyroid Association and European Thyroid Association joined forces to produce this consensus statement.

Keywords: American Thyroid Association; European Thyroid Association; consensus statement; thyroid eye disease.

MeSH terms

  • Consensus
  • Europe
  • Graves Ophthalmopathy* / diagnosis
  • Graves Ophthalmopathy* / therapy
  • Humans
  • Hyperthyroidism* / diagnosis
  • Hyperthyroidism* / therapy
  • United States