Optimal Control of all Modifiable Vascular Risk Factors Among Patients With Atherosclerotic Disease. A Real-Life Study

Curr Probl Cardiol. 2023 Mar;48(3):101530. doi: 10.1016/j.cpcardiol.2022.101530. Epub 2022 Dec 5.


The effects of maintaining all classical, vascular risk factors on target among patients with stabilized atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) are uncertain. Factores de Riesgo y ENfermedad Arterial (FRENA) was a prospective registry of consecutive outpatients with coronary, cerebrovascular, or peripheral artery disease. We analyzed the incidence of recurrent events and mortality according to sustained, optimal control of principal risk factors including the following: LDL cholesterol, glucose, blood pressure, and smoking. As of December 2018, 4285 stable outpatients were eligible for this study. Over a median follow-up of 21 months, 664 (15%) maintained all risk factors on target (Group 1), while 3621 (85%) did not (Group 2). During follow-up, no differences in recurrent major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) or death were observed between groups. On multivariable analysis, patients with previous known dyslipidemia (hazard ratio [HR]: 95% confidence interval (95% CI): ([HR]: 1.20 [95% CI, 1.03-1.40]), polyvascular disease ([HR]: 1.98 [95% CI, 1.69-2.32]), insulin therapy ([HR]: 1.56 [95% CI, 1.24-1.95]) and associated conditions ([HR]: 1.47 [95% CI, 1.24-1.74]) were associated with a higher risk for subsequent MACE. The presence of associated medical conditions was also strongly associated with all-cause death ([HR]: 3.49 [95% CI, 2.35-5.19]). Only a minority of patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease achieved sustained optimal control for all principal risk factors although without discernible clinical, therapeutic benefit. The findings of the present study provide some insights into what factors may be used to guide physicians in adapting intensive, multifactorial therapy to the individual patient in clinical practice.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Atherosclerosis* / epidemiology
  • Atherosclerosis* / prevention & control
  • Humans
  • Peripheral Arterial Disease* / therapy
  • Risk Factors
  • Smoking