Closed-loop ventilation

Curr Opin Crit Care. 2023 Feb 1;29(1):19-25. doi: 10.1097/MCC.0000000000001012. Epub 2022 Dec 9.


Purpose of review: The last 25 years have seen considerable development in modes of closed-loop ventilation and there are now several of them commercially available. They not only offer potential benefits for the individual patient, but may also improve the organization within the intensive care unit (ICU). Clinicians are showing both greater interest and willingness to address the issues of a caregiver shortage and overload of bedside work in the ICU. This article reviews the clinical benefits of using closed-loop ventilation modes, with a focus on control of oxygenation, lung protection, and weaning.

Recent findings: Closed-loop ventilation modes are able to maintain important physiological variables, such as oxygen saturation measured by pulse oximetry, tidal volume (VT), driving pressure (ΔP), and mechanical power (MP), within target ranges aimed at ensuring continuous lung protection. In addition, these modes adapt the ventilator support to the patient's needs, promoting diaphragm activity and preventing over-assistance. Some studies have shown the potential of these modes to reduce the duration of both weaning and mechanical ventilation.

Summary: Recent studies have primarily demonstrated the safety, efficacy, and feasibility of using closed-loop ventilation modes in the ICU and postsurgery patients. Large, multicenter randomized controlled trials are needed to assess their impact on important short- and long-term clinical outcomes, the organization of the ICU, and cost-effectiveness.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Humans
  • Intensive Care Units
  • Lung
  • Multicenter Studies as Topic
  • Respiration*
  • Respiration, Artificial*
  • Ventilator Weaning
  • Ventilators, Mechanical