Who Does Not Respond to Injury Prevention Warm-up Programs? A Secondary Analysis of Trial Data From Neuromuscular Training Programs in Youth Basketball, Soccer, and Physical Education

J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2023 Feb;53(2):94-102. doi: 10.2519/jospt.2022.11526. Epub 2022 Dec 9.


OBJECTIVES: To identify factors associated with nonresponse to neuromuscular training (NMT) warm-up programs among youth exposed to NMT warm-ups. METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of youth (aged 11-18 years) in the intervention groups of 4 randomized controlled trials in high school basketball, youth community soccer, and junior high school physical education. Youth who were exposed to NMT and who sustained an injury during the study were considered nonresponders. Odds ratios (ORs) were based on generalized estimating equations logistic regression controlling for clustering by team/class and adjusted for age, weight, height, balance performance, injury history, sex, and sport (soccer/basketball/physical education). RESULTS: A total of 1793 youth were included. Youth with a history of injury in the previous year had higher odds (OR = 1.64; 95% CI: 1.14, 2.37) of injury during the study, and females were more likely (OR = 1.67; 95% CI: 1.21, 2.31) to sustain an injury than males who were participating in NMT. Age was not associated with the odds of sustaining an injury (OR = 1.10; 95% CI: 0.93, 1.30). Soccer players benefited most from greater adherence, with 81% lower odds of injury (OR = 0.19; 95% CI: 0.06, 0.57) when completing 3 NMT sessions a week compared with 1 session per week. CONCLUSION: Factors associated with nonresponse to an NMT warm-up program were female sex, history of injury during the previous 12 months, and lower weekly NMT session adherence in some sports (soccer). J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2023;53(2):94-102. Epub: 9 December 2022. doi:10.2519/jospt.2022.11526.

Keywords: adolescent; athletic injuries; basketball; school; soccer.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Athletic Injuries* / prevention & control
  • Basketball* / injuries
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Physical Education and Training
  • Schools
  • Soccer* / injuries