Hypereosinophilic syndromes (HES) are a heterogenous group of rare disorders with clinical manifestations ranging from fatigue to life-threatening endomyocardial fibrosis and thromboembolic events. Given the broad differential diagnosis of HES, a comprehensive approach is needed to identify potential secondary (treatable) causes and define end-organ manifestations. Classification by clinical HES subtype is also useful in terms of assessing prognosis and guiding therapy. Corticosteroids remain the mainstay of initial therapy in the setting of acute, life-threatening PDGFR mutation-negative HES. Whereas the recent availability of eosinophil-targeted therapies with extraordinary efficacy and little apparent toxicity is changing the treatment paradigm, especially for idiopathic HES and overlap syndromes, questions remain unanswered regarding the choice of agent, impact of combination therapies, and long-term effects of eosinophil depletion. This review provides a case-based discussion of the differential diagnosis of HES, including the classification by clinical HES subtype. Treatment options are reviewed, including novel eosinophil-targeted agents recently approved for the treatment of HES and/or other eosinophil-associated disorders. Primary (myeloid) disorders associated with hypereosinophilia are not be addressed in depth in this review.