Dyslipidemia and Inflammation as Hallmarks of Oxidative Stress in COVID-19: A Follow-Up Study

Int J Mol Sci. 2022 Dec 5;23(23):15350. doi: 10.3390/ijms232315350.


Recent works have demonstrated a significant reduction in cholesterol levels and increased oxidative stress in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The cause of this alteration is not well known. This study aimed to comprehensively evaluate their possible association during the evolution of COVID-19. This is an observational prospective study. The primary endpoint was to analyze the association between lipid peroxidation, lipid, and inflammatory profiles in COVID-19 patients. A multivariate regression analysis was employed. The secondary endpoint included the long-term follow-up of lipid profiles. COVID-19 patients presented significantly lower values in their lipid profile (total, low, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) with greater oxidative stress and inflammatory response compared to the healthy controls. Lipid peroxidation was the unique oxidative parameter with a significant association with the total cholesterol (OR: 0.982; 95% CI: 0.969-0.996; p = 0.012), IL1-RA (OR: 0.999; 95% CI: 0.998-0.999; p = 0.021) IL-6 (OR: 1.062; 95% CI: 1.017-1.110; p = 0.007), IL-7 (OR: 0.653; 95% CI: 0.433-0.986; p = 0.042) and IL-17 (OR: 1.098; 95% CI: 1.010-1.193; p = 0.028). Lipid abnormalities recovered after the initial insult during long-term follow-up (IQR 514 days); however, those with high LPO levels at hospital admission had, during long-term follow-up, an atherogenic lipid profile. Our study suggests that oxidative stress in COVID-19 is associated with derangements of the lipid profile and inflammation. Survivors experienced a recovery in their lipid profiles during long-term follow-up, but those with stronger oxidative responses had an atherogenic lipid profile.

Keywords: COVID-19; inflammation; lipid peroxidation; lipoproteins; oxidative stress; total cholesterol.

Publication types

  • Observational Study

MeSH terms

  • Atherosclerosis*
  • COVID-19*
  • Cholesterol, HDL
  • Dyslipidemias*
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Inflammation
  • Oxidative Stress
  • Prospective Studies


  • Cholesterol, HDL