Berries are well-known fruits for their antioxidant effects due to their high content of flavonoids, and quercetin is one of the potent bioactive flavonoids. Although oxidative stress is an inevitable outcome in cells due to energy uptake and metabolism and other factors, excessive oxidative stress is considered a pivotal mediator for the cell death and leads to the progression of neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs). Furthermore, oxidative stress triggers inflammation that leads to neuronal cell loss. Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Huntington's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, and so on are the main neurodegenerative diseases. Hence, AD and PD are the most affected NDDs and cause the most lethality without any effective cure. Since AD and PD are the most common NDDs, therefore, in this study, we will describe the effect of oxidative stress on AD and PD. Targeting oxidative stress could be a very effective way to prevent and cure NDDs. Thus, the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO1) are potent endogenous antioxidant modulatory pathways, which also show cytoprotective activities. Modulation of Nrf2/HO1 signaling pathways through a biological approach could be an effective way to treat with NDDs. Quercetin is a natural polyphenol, which protects neurodegeneration, remarkably by suppressing oxidative stress and inflammation. Thus, quercetin could be a very effective agent against NDDs. We will discuss the benefits and challenges of quercetin to treat against NDDs, focusing on molecular biology.
Keywords: alpha synuclein; amyloid beta; cognition; oxidative stress; quercetin; tau.