CDC's COVID-19 International Vaccine Implementation and Evaluation Program and Lessons from Earlier Vaccine Introductions

Emerg Infect Dis. 2022 Dec;28(13):S208-S216. doi: 10.3201/eid2813.212123.


The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) supports international partners in introducing vaccines, including those against SARS-CoV-2 virus. CDC contributes to the development of global technical tools, guidance, and policy for COVID-19 vaccination and has established its COVID-19 International Vaccine Implementation and Evaluation (CIVIE) program. CIVIE supports ministries of health and their partner organizations in developing or strengthening their national capacities for the planning, implementation, and evaluation of COVID-19 vaccination programs. CIVIE's 7 priority areas for country-specific technical assistance are vaccine policy development, program planning, vaccine confidence and demand, data management and use, workforce development, vaccine safety, and evaluation. We discuss CDC's work on global COVID-19 vaccine implementation, including priorities, challenges, opportunities, and applicable lessons learned from prior experiences with Ebola, influenza, and meningococcal serogroup A conjugate vaccine introductions.

Keywords: COVID-19; Ebola; SARS-CoV-2; coronavirus disease; evaluation; implementation; influenza; meningococcus; respiratory infections; severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2; vaccines; viruses; zoonoses.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • COVID-19 Vaccines
  • COVID-19* / prevention & control
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S.
  • Humans
  • Influenza Vaccines*
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • United States / epidemiology


  • COVID-19 Vaccines
  • Influenza Vaccines