The latest WHO classification of the female genital tract tumors introduces a new type of carcinoma: the primary gastric-type (or gastro-intestinal type) carcinoma of the endometrium. This type of neoplasm tends to have a poor outcome, making its correct diagnostic important. As little is known about this entity and given its quite challenging diagnosis, we aim to review existing data about it and propose a practical diagnostic approach. There are currently 11 cases published in 8 articles fitting the precise definition of a primary gastric-type carcinoma of the endometrium. Three main differential diagnoses must be excluded before considering this tumor: endometrioid adenocarcinoma with mucinous (Müllerian-type) differentiation, endocervical primary, and gastro-intestinal primary. Morphological aspects of this tumor can be heterogeneous and confusing; in this context, immunochemistry can be helpful to highlight the gastric or intestinal differentiation, but also to eliminate a mucinous endometrioid adenocarcinoma of Müllerian-type, by the constant negativity of estrogen receptors. A metastasis of a primary gastro-intestinal tract carcinoma must also be excluded by clinical, endoscopic and imaging work-up. Finally, an endometrial extension of a primary endocervical gastric-type carcinoma should be ruled out by complete sampling of the cervix. Intestinal type endocervical adenocarcinoma is easier to eliminate since this is an HPV-associated neoplasm.
Keywords: Endometrial; Gastric; Gastro-intestinal; Intestinal; Mucinous.
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