Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone in Endothelial Inflammation

Endocrinology. 2022 Dec 19;164(2):bqac209. doi: 10.1210/endocr/bqac209.


The discovery of hypothalamic hormones propelled exciting advances in pharmacotherapy and improved life quality worldwide. Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) is a crucial element in homeostasis maintenance, and regulates the release of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary gland. Accumulating evidence suggests that this neuropeptide can also promote malignancies, as well as inflammation. Our review is focused on the role of that 44 - amino acid peptide (GHRH) and its antagonists in inflammation and vascular function, summarizing recent findings in the corresponding field. Preclinical studies demonstrate the protective role of GHRH antagonists against endothelial barrier dysfunction, suggesting that the development of those peptides may lead to new therapies against pathologies related to vascular remodeling (eg, sepsis, acute respiratory distress syndrome). Targeted therapies for those diseases do not exist.

Keywords: cytokines; endothelium; growth hormone; unfolded protein response.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Growth Hormone
  • Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone* / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Inflammation
  • Peptides
  • Pituitary Gland, Anterior* / metabolism
  • Receptors, Pituitary Hormone-Regulating Hormone


  • Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone
  • Growth Hormone
  • Peptides
  • Receptors, Pituitary Hormone-Regulating Hormone