Immune response and homeostasis mechanism following administration of BBIBP-CorV SARS-CoV-2 inactivated vaccine

Innovation (Camb). 2023 Jan 30;4(1):100359. doi: 10.1016/j.xinn.2022.100359. Epub 2022 Dec 5.


The BBIBP-CorV severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) inactivated vaccine has been authorized for emergency use and widely distributed. We used single-cell transcriptome sequencing to characterize the dynamics of immune responses to the BBIBP-CorV inactivated vaccine. In addition to the expected induction of humoral immunity, we found that the inactivated vaccine induced multiple, comprehensive immune responses, including significantly increased proportions of CD16+ monocytes and activation of monocyte antigen presentation pathways; T cell activation pathway upregulation in CD8+ T cells, along with increased activation of CD4+ T cells; significant enhancement of cell-cell communications between innate and adaptive immunity; and the induction of regulatory CD4+ T cells and co-inhibitory interactions to maintain immune homeostasis after vaccination. Additionally, comparative analysis revealed higher neutralizing antibody levels, distinct expansion of naive T cells, a shared increased proportion of regulatory CD4+ T cells, and upregulated expression of functional genes in booster dose recipients with a longer interval after the second vaccination. Our research will support a comprehensive understanding of the systemic immune responses elicited by the BBIBP-CorV inactivated vaccine, which will facilitate the formulation of better vaccination strategies and the design of new vaccines.

Keywords: COVID-19; homeostasis; immune response; inactivated vaccine; scRNA-seq.