The mechanisms of chromogranin B-regulated Cl- homeostasis

Biochem Soc Trans. 2022 Dec 16;50(6):1659-1672. doi: 10.1042/BST20220435.


Chloride is the most abundant inorganic anions in almost all cells and in human circulation systems. Its homeostasis is therefore important for systems physiology and normal cellular activities. This topic has been extensively studied with chloride loaders and extruders expressed in both cell surfaces and intracellular membranes. With the newly discovered, large-conductance, highly selective Cl- channel formed by membrane-bound chromogranin B (CHGB), which differs from all other known anion channels of conventional transmembrane topology, and is distributed in plasma membranes, endomembrane systems, endosomal, and endolysosomal compartments in cells expressing it, we will discuss the potential physiological importance of the CHGB channels to Cl- homeostasis, cellular excitability and volume control, and cation uptake or release at the cellular and subcellular levels. These considerations and CHGB's association with human diseases make the CHGB channel a possible druggable target for future molecular therapeutics.

Keywords: anion shunting pathway; chloride and cation storage; chloride loaders and extruders; excitable membranes; inhibitory and excitatory signals; regulated secretion.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Anions / metabolism
  • Chloride Channels* / metabolism
  • Chlorides* / metabolism
  • Chromogranin B / metabolism
  • Homeostasis
  • Humans


  • Chlorides
  • Chloride Channels
  • Chromogranin B
  • Anions