The in vivo metabolism of Jungle Warfare in greyhounds

Steroids. 2023 Feb:190:109150. doi: 10.1016/j.steroids.2022.109150. Epub 2022 Nov 26.


Δ6-Methyltestosterone was reported as the main active ingredient of the purported "dietary supplement" Jungle Warfare. This compound is structurally similar to 17α-methyltestosterone, containing an additional Δ6 double bond, and is reported to possess notable androgenic activity, raising concerns over the potential for abuse of Jungle Warfare in sport. The in vivo metabolism of Δ6-methyltestosterone in greyhounds was investigated. Urinary phase I (unconjugated) and phase II (glucuronide) metabolites were detected following oral administration using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. No phase II sulfate metabolites were detected. The major phase I metabolite was confirmed as 16α,17β-dihydroxy-17α-methylandrosta-4,6-dien-3-one by comparison with a synthetically-derived reference material. Minor amounts of the parent drug were also confirmed. Glucuronide conjugated metabolites were also observed, but were found to be resistant to hydrolysis using the Escherichia coli β-glucuronidase enzyme. Qualitative excretion profiles, limits of detection, and extraction recoveries were determined for the parent drug and the major phase I metabolite. These results provide a method for the detection of Jungle Warfare abuse in greyhounds suitable for incorporation into routine screening methods conducted by anti-doping laboratories.

Keywords: Anti-doping; Designer steroid; Greyhound; Jungle Warfare; Metabolism; Δ6-methyltestosterone.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Anabolic Agents* / metabolism
  • Androgens
  • Animals
  • Dogs
  • Doping in Sports*
  • Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry / methods
  • Glucuronides
  • Mass Spectrometry
  • Methyltestosterone / analysis
  • Methyltestosterone / metabolism
  • Substance Abuse Detection / methods


  • Methyltestosterone
  • Glucuronides
  • Androgens
  • Anabolic Agents