We reviewed the records of 58 patients with haemoptysis and normal chest roentgenograms who underwent fibreoptic bronchoscopy. A diagnosis of malignancy was made in six patients at bronchoscopy. Three patients had bronchogenic squamous cell carcinoma, one a carcinoid tumour and two laryngeal carcinoma. Sputum for cytology was negative for malignant cells in all six patients. Follow-up data were available for the other 52 patients for an average period of 55.7 +/- 29.6 (SD) months. Two patients had a subsequent diagnosis of bronchogenic carcinoma at 2 and 6 years after initial evaluation. Three patients died from conditions not related to pulmonary malignancy and the remaining patients followed a benign course. Our patients come from a predominantly male, elderly population of cigarette smokers. Among such patients, we conclude that bronchoscopy is indicated in the evaluation of those with haemoptysis and a normal chest roentgenogram.