The detailed histopathology of the swine-serum (SS)-induced bile duct lesion and some factors influencing the incidence and severity of the lesion were examined. The lesion was expressed as an eosinophilic and proliferative cholangitis affecting almost the full length of the biliary tract. It appears to be a useful new model of bile duct diseases. The co-existence of sufficient anti-SS antibody together with repeated injection of SS were necessary to produce this lesion. The lesion could be induced reproducibly by intraperitoneal injection of 0.05 to 0.2 ml of swine serum twice a week for 4 weeks in young BALB/c mice.