Circulating Metabolites Associated with Albuminuria in a Hispanic/Latino Population

Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2022 Dec 14;CJN.09070822. doi: 10.2215/CJN.09070822. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Background. Albuminuria is associated with metabolic abnormalities, but these relationships are not well understood. We studied the association of metabolites with albuminuria in Hispanics/Latinos, a population with high risk for metabolic disease. Methods. We used data from 3,736 participants from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos, of which 16% had diabetes and 9% had an increased urine albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR). Metabolites were quantified in fasting serum through non-targeted mass spectrometry (MS) analysis using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-MS/MS. Spot UACR was inverse normally transformed and tested for the association with each metabolite or combined, correlated metabolites in covariate-adjusted models that accounted for the study design. 132 metabolites were available for replication in the HyperGEN study (n = 300), and 29 metabolites were available for replication in the Malmö Offspring Study (n = 999). Results. Among 640 named metabolites, we identified 148 metabolites significantly associated with UACR, including 18 novel associations that replicated in independent samples. These metabolites showed enrichment for D-Glutamine and D-Glutamate metabolism and arginine biosynthesis, pathways previously reported for diabetes and insulin resistance. In correlated metabolite analyses, we identified two modules significantly associated with UACR, including a module composed of lipid metabolites related to the biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids and alpha linolenic acid and linoleic acid metabolism. Conclusions. Our study identified associations of albuminuria with metabolites involved in glucose dysregulation, and essential fatty acids and precursors of arachidonic acid in Hispanics/Latinos.