Background: Preoperative endoscopic diagnosis and timely treatment are important for the clinical management of sporadically superficial nonampullary duodenal epithelial tumours (SNADETs), including adenoma and adenocarcinoma limited to the submucosal layer.
Methods: This review explores current endoscopic diagnosis and endoscopic resection technology for SNADETs. We compare endoscopic diagnosis accuracy using white light imaging, narrow band imaging, and magnification endoscopy alone or in combination. In addition, we review the current endoscopic resection methods for SNADETs and discuss the limitations and applicable future directions of each technology.
Results: A simple scoring system based on the endoscopic findings of white light imaging or magnified endoscopy combined with image-enhanced techniques was applied for the prediction of the histological grade of SNADETs. Benign or low-grade adenoma can be followed up without biopsy, and high-grade adenoma and adenocarcinoma should be resected by endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR), endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD), or surgery. EMR frequently leads to a piecemeal resection, while ESD ensures a high en bloc resection rate with a high risk of complications. Covering or closing post-ESD ulcers is an effective strategy to reduce the risk of delayed perforation and bleeding. Laparoscopic endoscopic cooperative surgery is a promising treatment for SNADETs with excellent rates of en bloc resection and a low risk of complications, although it is expensive and requires many specialists.
Conclusions: Early endoscopic diagnosis and optimal treatment selection for SNADETs may improve the poor prognosis of duodenal cancer.
Keywords: Endoscopic diagnosis; Endoscopic mucosal resection; Endoscopic submucosal dissection; Laparoscopic endoscopic cooperative surgery; Superficial nonampullary duodenal epithelial tumors.
© 2022. The Author(s).