Identification, classification, and expression profile analysis of heat shock transcription factor gene family in Salvia miltiorrhiza

PeerJ. 2022 Dec 5:10:e14464. doi: 10.7717/peerj.14464. eCollection 2022.


In response to abiotic stresses, transcription factors are essential. Heat shock transcription factors (HSFs), which control gene expression, serve as essential regulators of plant growth, development, and stress response. As a model medicinal plant, Salvia miltiorrhiza is a crucial component in the treatment of cardiovascular illnesses. But throughout its growth cycle, S.miltiorrhiza is exposed to a series of abiotic challenges, including heat and drought. In this study, 35 HSF genes were identified based on genome sequencing of Salvia miltiorrhiza utilizing bioinformatics techniques. Additionally, 35 genes were classified into three groups by phylogeny and gene structural analysis, comprising 22 HSFA, 11 HSFB, and two HSFC. The distribution and sequence analysis of motif showed that SmHSFs were relatively conservative. In SmHSF genes, analysis of the promoter region revealed the presence of many cis-acting elements linked to stress, hormones, and growth and development, suggesting that these factors have regulatory roles. The majority of SmHSFs were expressed in response to heat and drought stress, according to combined transcriptome and real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) analyses. In conclusion, this study looked at the SmHSF gene family using genome-wide identification, evolutionary analysis, sequence characterization, and expression analysis. This research serves as a foundation for further investigations into the role of HSF genes and their molecular mechanisms in plant stress responses.

Keywords: Drought; Gene expression; Heat; Salvia miltiorrhiza; SmHSF.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Heat Shock Transcription Factors / genetics
  • Salvia miltiorrhiza* / genetics
  • Stress, Physiological / genetics
  • Transcription Factors / genetics


  • Heat Shock Transcription Factors
  • Transcription Factors

Grants and funding

This study was funded by the Natural Science Foundation of China (81973416). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.