Objective: Bilateral frontoparietal polymicrogyria (BFPP) is a rare genetic-related migration disorder. It has been attributed to loss-of-function of the ADGRG1 gene, which encodes an adhesion G protein-coupled receptor, ADGRG1/GPR56. We report the EEG findings of BFPP in three Asian patients, and confirmed that change in protein function was caused by the novel missense variant (p.Leu290Pro).
Methods: We reviewed the medical records of three siblings with BFPP including one elder girl and two identical twin boys from birth to adulthood. The clinical symptoms, electroencephalography (EEG), brain MRI, whole-exome sequencing, treatment including medications, neuromodulation, and epilepsy surgery, and clinical outcomes were reviewed. The protein structure of a novel missense variant (p.Leu290Pro) was predicted by in silico studies, and molecular analysis was performed via typical flow cytometry and Western blotting.
Results: The elder girl (Patient 1) was 22 years old and the twin boys (Patients 2 and 3) were 20 years old at the time of publication. All of them presented with typical clinical symptoms/signs and MRI findings of BFPP. Whole-exome sequencing followed by Sanger confirmation showed that all three patients had compound heterozygous variants in the ADGRG1 gene. The missense variant (p.Leu290Pro) was confirmed to be related to a reduction in cell surface GPR56 expression. High-amplitude rhythmic activity was noted in sleep EEG during infancy, which may have been due to excessive sleep spindle, and the rhythm disappeared when they were of pre-school age. Partial callosotomy provided short-term benefits in seizure control in Patients 1 and 2, and combined vagus nerve stimulation and partial callosotomy provided longer benefits in Patient 3.
Significance: Sleep EEG findings of high-amplitude rhythmic activity in our BFPP cases were only noted during infancy and childhood. We also confirmed that the missense variant (p.Leu290Pro) led to loss of function due to a reduction in cell surface GPR56 expression.
Keywords: congenital CNS malformation; epilepsy; genetic; polymicrogyria.
© 2022 The Authors. Epilepsia Open published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of International League Against Epilepsy.