Scaling Up Magnetic Nanobead Synthesis with Improved Stability for Biomedical Applications

J Phys Chem A. 2022 Dec 29;126(51):9605-9617. doi: 10.1021/acs.jpca.2c05902. Epub 2022 Dec 16.


The growing interest in multifunctional nano-objects based on polymers and magnetic nanoparticles for biomedical applications motivated us to develop a scale-up protocol to increase the yield of polymeric magnetic nanobeads while aiming at keeping the structural features at optimal conditions. The protocol was applied to two different types of magnetic ferrite nanoparticles: the Mn-ferrite selected for their properties as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging and iron oxide nanostar shaped nanoparticles chosen for their heat performance in magnetic hyperthermia. At the same time, some experiments on surface functionalization of nanobeads with amino modified polyethyelene glycol (PEG) molecules have provided further insight into the formation mechanism of magnetic nanobeads and the need to cross-link the polymer shell to improve the stability of the beads, making them more suitable for further manipulation and use. The present work summarizes the most important parameters required to be controlled for the upscaling of nanobead synthesis in a bench protocol and proposes an alternative cross-linking strategy based on prefunctionalization of the polymer prior to the nanobead formation as a key parameter to improve the nanobead structural stability in solutions at different pHs and during surface functionalization.

MeSH terms

  • Ferric Compounds / chemistry
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods
  • Nanoparticles* / chemistry
  • Polymers* / chemistry


  • ferrite
  • Polymers
  • Ferric Compounds