Wound healing complications in gender-affirming surgery

Neurourol Urodyn. 2023 Jun;42(5):990-995. doi: 10.1002/nau.25116. Epub 2022 Dec 16.


Aims: Gender-affirming surgery consists of a group of surgical procedures for patients presenting with gender incongruence. Patients may seek treatment of anatomic areas including the face, chest, breast, and genitalia. The aim of this scoping review is to provide a general understanding of wound healing to optimize outcomes and manage complications.

Methods: A scoping review was performed to include wound healing principles, outcomes related to gender-affirming surgery, and management of postsurgical wounds.

Results: Based on the review performed and clinical experience, strategies to manage complications are recommended. These include an understanding of wound healing principles, patient optimization, and postoperative management.

Conclusions: A comprehensive understanding of wound healing principles, perioperative optimization, and postoperative management of wounds assists the provider in mitigating and managing complications.

Keywords: gender-affirming surgery; metoidioplasty; phalloplasty; transgender health; urethral fistula; urethral stricture; vaginoplasty; wound healing.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Genitalia
  • Humans
  • Sex Reassignment Surgery* / adverse effects
  • Sex Reassignment Surgery* / methods
  • Transgender Persons*
  • Wound Healing