Chromosome analysis was performed in 17 children with IgA-deficiency. In two patients a constitutional structural chromosome abnormality was found. A ring chromosome 22 was seen in one, while in the other a mosaicism of ring chromosome 18/18p+ was observed. Both patients were mentally retarded and showed distinct congenital defects. From ten asymptomatic patients, spontaneous as well as X-ray-induced chromosome instability was investigated. There was no increased spontaneous instability, and also after irradiation the induced chromosome damage was within normal control levels. A relationship between IgA-deficiency and X-ray hypersensitivity, as might be suggested by the frequently occurring coincidence of radiosensitivity and IgA-deficiency in ataxia telangiectasia patients, is not established.