Noninvasive prenatal screening (NIPS) for fetal chromosome abnormalities in a general-risk population: An evidence-based clinical guideline of the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG)

Genet Med. 2023 Feb;25(2):100336. doi: 10.1016/j.gim.2022.11.004. Epub 2022 Dec 16.


Purpose: This workgroup aimed to develop an evidence-based clinical practice guideline for the use of noninvasive prenatal screening (NIPS) for pregnant individuals at general risk for fetal trisomy 21, trisomy 18, or trisomy 13 and to evaluate the utility of NIPS for other chromosomal disorders.

Methods: The NIPS Evidence-Based Guideline Work Group (n = 7) relied on the results from the recent American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) systematic review to form the evidentiary basis of this guideline. Workgroup members used the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation Evidence to Decision framework to draft recommendations. The guideline underwent extensive internal and external peer review with a public comment period before approval by the ACMG Board of Directors.

Results: Evidence consistently demonstrated improved accuracy of NIPS compared with traditional screening methods for trisomies 21, 18, and 13 in singleton and twin gestations. Identification of rare autosomal trisomies and other microdeletion syndromes with NIPS is an emerging area of interest.

Conclusion: ACMG strongly recommends NIPS over traditional screening methods for all pregnant patients with singleton and twin gestations for fetal trisomies 21, 18, and 13 and strongly recommends NIPS be offered to patients to screen for fetal sex chromosome aneuploidy.

Keywords: Cell-free DNA; Down syndrome; Noninvasive prenatal screening.

Publication types

  • Practice Guideline

MeSH terms

  • Aneuploidy
  • Chromosome Aberrations
  • Down Syndrome* / diagnosis
  • Female
  • Genetics, Medical*
  • Genomics
  • Humans
  • Noninvasive Prenatal Testing* / methods
  • Pregnancy
  • Prenatal Diagnosis / methods
  • Trisomy / diagnosis
  • Trisomy / genetics
  • United States