Cellular Communication Network (CCN) proteins have multimodular structures important for their roles in cellular responses associated with organ development and tissue homeostasis. CCN2 has previously been reported to be secreted as a preproprotein that requires proteolytic activation to release its bioactive carboxyl-terminal fragment. Here, our goal was to resolve whether CCN5, a divergent member of the CCN family with converse functions relative to CCN2, releases the TSP1 homology domain as its bioactive signaling entity. The recombinant CCN5 or CCN3 TSP1 homology domains were produced in ExpiCHO-S or DG44 CHO cells as secretory fusion proteins appended to the carboxyl-terminal end of His-Halo-Sumo or amino-terminal end of human albumin and purified from the cell culture medium. We tested these fusion proteins in various phosphokinase signaling pathways or cell physiologic assays. Fusion proteins with the CCN5 TSP1 domain inhibited key signaling pathways previously reported to be stimulated by CCN2, irrespective of fusion partner. The fusion proteins also efficiently inhibited CCN1/2-stimulated cell migration and gap closure following scratch wound of fibroblasts. Fusion protein with the CCN3 TSP1 domain inhibited these functions with similar efficacy and potency as that of the CCN5 TSP1 domain. The CCN5 TSP1 domain also recapitulated a positive regulatory function previously assigned to full-length CCN5, that is, induction of estrogen receptor-α mRNA expression in triple negative MDA-MB-231 mammary adenocarcinoma cells and inhibited epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and CCN2-induced mammosphere formation of MCF-7 adenocarcinoma cells. In conclusion, the CCN5 TSP1 domain is the bioactive entity that confers the biologic functions of unprocessed CCN5.
Keywords: CCN2; CCN3; CCN5; TSP1-homology domain; WISP2; cell migration; fibroblasts; matricellular protein; phospho-ERK1/2; phosphokinase signaling; primary human lung fibroblasts.
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