The impairment of intramural periarterial drainage in brain after subarachnoid hemorrhage

Acta Neuropathol Commun. 2022 Dec 18;10(1):187. doi: 10.1186/s40478-022-01492-8.


Interstitial fluid (ISF) from brain drains along the basement membranes of capillaries and arteries as Intramural Periarterial Drainage (IPAD); failure of IPAD results in cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). In this study, we test the hypothesis that IPAD fails after subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). The rat SAH model was established using endovascular perforation method. Fluorescence dyes with various molecular weights were injected into cisterna magna of rats, and the pattern of IPAD after SAH was detected using immunofluorescence staining, two-photon fluorescent microscope, transmission electron microscope and magnetic resonance imaging tracking techniques. Our results showed that fluorescence dyes entered the brain along a periarterial compartment and were cleared from brain along the basement membranes of the capillaries, with different patterns based on individual molecular weights. After SAH, there was significant impairment in the IPAD system: marked expansion of perivascular spaces, and ISF clearance rate was significantly decreased, associated with the apoptosis of endothelial cells, activation of astrocytes, over-expression of matrix metalloproteinase 9 and loss of collagen type IV. In conclusion, experimental SAH leads to a failure of IPAD, clinically significant for long term complications such as CAA, following SAH.

Keywords: Cerebrospinal fluid; Collagen type IV; Interstitial fluid; Intramural periarterial drainage; Matrix metalloproteinase 9; Subarachnoid hemorrhage.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy* / pathology
  • Coloring Agents
  • Drainage
  • Endothelial Cells / pathology
  • Rats
  • Subarachnoid Hemorrhage*


  • Coloring Agents