The existence of three different proteins exhibiting NAD-dependent acetaldehyde dehydrogenase activity was confirmed in Alicaligenes eutrophus. The fermentative alcohol dehydrogenase, which also exhibits acetaldehyde dehydrogenase activity, is one of these proteins. The other two proteins were purified from A. eutrophus N9A mutant AS4 grown on ethanol applying chromatography on DEAE-Sephacel and triazine-dye affinity media. Acetaldehyde dehydrogenase II, which amounts to about 14% of the total soluble protein in cells grown on ethanol, was purified to homogeneity. The relative molecular masses of the native enzyme and of the subunits were 195,000 or 56,000, respectively. This enzyme exhibits a high affinity for acetaldehyde (Km = 4 microM). Acetaldehyde dehydrogenase I amounts only to less than 1% of the total soluble protein. The relative molecular masses of the native enzyme and of the subunits were 185,000 and 52,000, respectively. This enzyme exhibits a low affinity for acetaldehyde (Km = 2.6 mM). Antibodies raised against acetaldehyde dehydrogenase II did not react with acetaldehyde dehydrogenase I. Two different strains, A. eutrophus N9A mutant AS1, which represents a different mutant type and can utilize both ethanol or 2,3-butanediol, and the type strain of A. eutrophus (TF93), which can utilize ethanol, form two acetaldehyde dehydrogenases during growth on ethanol, too. As in AS4, one of these enzymes from each strain amounted to a substantial portion of the total soluble protein in the cells. These major acetaldehyde dehydrogenases were purified from both strains; they resemble acetaldehyde dehydrogenase II isolated from AS4 in all relevant properties. Antibodies against the enzyme isolated from AS4 gave identical cross-reactions with the enzymes isolated from AS1 and TF93.