Comparative genomic analysis of Citrobacter sp. XT1-2-2 reveals insights into the molecular mechanism of microbial immobilization of heavy metals

BMC Genomics. 2022 Dec 19;23(1):838. doi: 10.1186/s12864-022-09069-4.


Background: In our previous study, Citrobacter sp. XT1-2-2 was isolated from high cadmium-contaminated soils, and demonstrated an excellent ability to decrease the bioavailability of cadmium in the soil and inhibit cadmium uptake in rice. In addition, the strain XT1-2-2 could significantly promote rice growth and increase rice biomass. Therefore, the strain XT1-2-2 shows great potential for remediation of cadmium -contaminated soils. However, the genome sequence of this organism has not been reported so far. RESULTS: Here the basic characteristics and genetic diversity of the strain XT1-2-2 were described, together with the draft genome and comparative genomic results. The strain XT1-2-2 is 5040459 bp long with an average G + C content of 52.09%, and contains a total of 4801 genes. Putative genomic islands were predicted in the genome of Citrobacter sp. XT1-2-2. All genes of a complete set of sulfate reduction pathway and various putative heavy metal resistance genes in the genome were identified and analyzed.

Conclusions: These analytical results provide insights into the genomic basis of microbial immobilization of heavy metals.

Keywords: Cadmium; Citrobacter; Microbial immobilization; Rice; Sulfate reduction pathway.

MeSH terms

  • Cadmium / metabolism
  • Citrobacter
  • Genomics
  • Metals, Heavy*
  • Oryza* / metabolism
  • Soil
  • Soil Pollutants* / metabolism


  • Cadmium
  • Soil Pollutants
  • Metals, Heavy
  • Soil

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