Risk Perception and Acceptability of the COVID-19 Vaccine in Nigeria

Turk J Pharm Sci. 2022 Dec 21;19(6):686-693. doi: 10.4274/tjps.galenos.2021.75710.

Abstract

Objectives: Vaccines are anticipated to control the ongoing coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, however, their acceptance is critical for the desired benefit. This study assessed risk perceptions of COVID-19, acceptability of its vaccine and socio-demographic associations of its acceptability in Nigeria.

Materials and methods: A cross-sectional web-based study was conducted among 420 participants in Nigeria's six geopolitical regions, using a three-part questionnaire. The questionnaire link was distributed via snowball method to consenting participants through online platforms. Study outcome measures were acceptance of COVID-19 vaccine, and risk perception of COVID-19 by study participants. Descriptive and inferential statistics were performed using Microsoft Excel and SPSS version 24. p values ≤0.05 were considered statistically significant.

Results: A total of 410 respondents participated in the study and high-risk perception of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 infection (COVID-19) was seen in 127 (66.1%) respondents. Vaccine acceptance was high in 233 (56.8%) respondents and was significantly associated with geo-political region (p=0.028). A moderate positive relationship (r: 0.3) was found between risk perception and acceptability of COVID-19 vaccine and the correlation was statistically significant (p=0.000).

Conclusion: High-risk perception of COVID-19 was found in over half of the respondents, and COVID-19 vaccine acceptance rate was a little more than 50%. However, the study noted regional association with vaccine acceptance among study participants. Therefore, strategic and targeted messaging on vaccine acceptance should be prioritized by stakeholders, to ensure successful vaccine implementation.

Keywords: COVID-19; Nigeria; acceptability of vaccine; infection; risk perception.