In the last few decades, biomimetic concepts have been widely adopted in various biomedical fields, including clinical dentistry. Endodontics is an important sub-branch of dentistry which deals with the different conditions of pulp to prevent tooth loss. Traditionally, common procedures, namely pulp capping, root canal treatment, apexification, and apexigonesis, have been considered for the treatment of different pulp conditions using selected materials. However, clinically to regenerate dental pulp, tissue engineering has been advocated as a feasible approach. Currently, new trends are emerging in terms of regenerative endodontics which have led to the replacement of diseased and non-vital teeth into the functional and healthy dentine-pulp complex. Root- canal therapy is the standard management option when dental pulp is damaged irreversibly. This treatment modality involves soft-tissue removal and then filling that gap through the obturation technique with a synthetic material. The formation of tubular dentine and pulp-like tissue formation occurs when stem cells are transplanted into the root canal with an appropriate scaffold material. To sum up tissue engineering approach includes three components: (1) scaffold, (2) differentiation, growth, and factors, and (3) the recruitment of stem cells within the pulp or from the periapical region. The aim of this paper is to thoroughly review and discuss various pulp-regenerative approaches and materials used in regenerative endodontics which may highlight the current trends and future research prospects in this particular area.
Keywords: endodontia; regenerative endodontics; revascularization; revitalization.