Tissue Characterization in Cardiac Amyloidosis

Biomedicines. 2022 Nov 28;10(12):3054. doi: 10.3390/biomedicines10123054.


Cardiac amyloidosis (CA) has long been considered a rare disease, but recent advancements in diagnostic tools have led to a reconsideration of the epidemiology of CA. Amyloid light-chain (AL) and transthyretin (ATTR) amyloidoses are the most common forms of cardiac amyloidosis. Due to the distinct treatments and the different prognoses, amyloid typing is crucial. Although a non-biopsy diagnosis can be obtained in ATTR amyloidosis when certain diagnostic criteria are fulfilled, tissue characterization still represents the gold standard for the diagnosis and typing of CA, particularly in AL amyloidosis. The present review focuses on the status of tissue characterization in cardiac amyloidosis, from histochemistry to immunohistochemistry and mass spectrometry, as well as on its future directions.

Keywords: AL amyloidosis; abdominal fat tissue biopsy; cardiac amyloidosis; endomyocardial biopsy; histology; immunohistochemistry; mass spectrometry; transthyretin amyloidosis.

Publication types

  • Review

Grants and funding

This research received no external funding.