Heart failure constitutes a clinical complex syndrome with different symptomatic characteristics depending on age, sex, race and ethnicity, among others, which has become a major public health issue with an increasing prevalence. One of the most interesting tools seeking to improve prevention, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of this pathology has focused on finding new molecular biomarkers since heart failure relies on deficient cardiac homeostasis, which is regulated by a strict gene expression. Therefore, currently, analyses of non-coding RNA transcriptomics have been oriented towards human samples. The present review develops a comparative study emphasizing the relevance of microRNAs, long non-coding RNAs and circular RNAs as potential biomarkers in heart failure. Significantly, further studies in this field of research are fundamental to supporting their widespread clinical use. In this sense, the various methodologies used by the authors should be standardized, including larger cohorts, homogeneity of the samples and uniformity of the bioinformatic pipelines used to reach stratification and statistical significance of the results. These basic adjustments could provide promising steps to designing novel strategies for clinical management of patients with heart failure.
Keywords: circular RNA; heart failure; long non-coding RNA; microRNA; non-coding RNA; transcriptomics.