Improved Extraction Efficiency and Antioxidant Activity of Defatted Canola Meal Extract Phenolic Compounds Obtained from Air-Fried Seeds

Antioxidants (Basel). 2022 Dec 6;11(12):2411. doi: 10.3390/antiox11122411.


This study investigated the efficacy of roasting pre-treatment by air frying to enhance the extraction and recovery of the predominant sinapic acid derivatives (SADs) from roasted canola meal and the antioxidant potential of the methanolic extracts. Canola meal was obtained by air frying canola seed at 160, 170, 180 or 190 °C for 5, 10, 15 or 20 min. Oil was extracted using the Soxhlet method, and the de-oiled meal fraction was air-dried. Phenolic compounds were isolated using ultrasound-assisted extraction with 70% (v/v) methanol and then quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection. The antioxidant potential of the defatted meal methanolic extracts was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and metal ion-chelating activity (MIC) assays. The highest total phenolic content of 3.15 mg gallic acid equivalent/g dry weight was recorded in the defatted meal extract from seeds pre-treated with air frying at 190 °C for 15 min. Sinapine, sinapic acid and an unknown compound at a retention time (RT) of 26.6 min were the major sinapates identified in the defatted meal with the highest concentrations of 7572 ± 479.2 µg/g DW, 727 ± 43.45 µg/g DW and 1763 ± 73.5 µg/g DW, respectively, obtained at 160 °C for 5 min. Canolol (151.35 ± 7.65 µg/g DW) was detected after air frying at a temperature of 170 °C for 20 min. The FRAP and MIC correlated positively (r = 0.85) and generally decreased with increased air frying temperature-time conditions. The highest FRAP and MIC values of 0.53 mM and 80% were obtained at 160 °C for 5 and 20 min, respectively. The outcome of this study will contribute new knowledge that could improve the value addition and by-product utilization of canola seeds.

Keywords: air frying; antioxidant potential; canola meal; phenolic compounds; pre-treatment.