Impact of Glyphosate on the Development of Insulin Resistance in Experimental Diabetic Rats: Role of NFκB Signalling Pathways

Antioxidants (Basel). 2022 Dec 9;11(12):2436. doi: 10.3390/antiox11122436.


Glyphosate, an endocrine disruptor, has an adverse impact on human health through food and also has the potential to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can lead to metabolic diseases. Glyphosate consumption from food has been shown to have a substantial part in insulin resistance, making it a severe concern to those with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). However, minimal evidence exists on how glyphosate impacts insulin-mediated glucose oxidation in the liver. Hence the current study was performed to explore the potential of glyphosate toxicity on insulin signaling in the liver of experimental animals. For 16 weeks, male albino Wistar rats were given 50 mg, 100 mg and 250 mg/kg b. wt. of glyphosate orally. In the current study, glyphosate exposure group was linked to a rise in fasting sugar and insulin as well as a drop in serum testosterone. At the same time, in a dose dependent fashion, glyphosate exposure showed alternations in glucose metabolic enzymes. Glyphosate exposure resulted in a raise in H2O2 formation, LPO and a reduction in antioxidant levels those results in impact on membrane integrity and insulin receptor efficacy in the liver. It also registered a reduced levels of mRNA and protein expression of insulin receptor (IR), glucose transporter-2 (GLUT2) with concomitant increase in the production of proinflammatory factors such as JNK, IKKβ, NFkB, IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α as well as transcriptional factors like SREBP1c and PPAR-γ leading to pro-inflammation and cirrhosis in the liver which results in the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Our present findings for the first time providing an evidence that exposure of glyphosate develops insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes by aggravating NFkB signaling pathway in liver.

Keywords: GLUT2 expression; NFκB signalling pathways; glyphosate; rats; type 2 diabetes.

Grants and funding

The authors are grateful to the Researchers Supporting Project number (RSP-2021/393), King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.