The widespread use of whole exome sequencing (WES) resulted in the discovery of multilocus pathogenic variations (MPV), defined as two or more distinct or overlapping Mendelian disorders occurring in a patient, leading to a blended phenotype. In this study, we report on a child with autosomal recessive primary microcephaly-5 (MCPH5) and nephropathic cystinosis. The proband is the first child of consanguineous parents, presenting a complex phenotype including neurodevelopmental delay, microcephaly, growth restriction, significant delay of bone maturation, lissencephaly, and abnormality of neuronal migration, photophobia, and renal tubular acidosis. WES revealed two pathogenic and homozygous variants: a c.4174C>T variant in the ASPM gene and a c.382C>T variant in the CTNS gene, explaining the complex phenotype. The literature review showed that most of the patients harboring two variants in recessive disease genes are born to consanguineous parents. To the best of our knowledge, the patient herein described is the first one harboring pathogenic variants in both the ASPM and CTNS genes. These findings highlight the importance of searching for MPV in patients with complex phenotypes investigated by genome-wide testing methods, especially for those patients born to consanguineous parents.
Keywords: ASPM; CTNS; consanguineous parents; dual molecular diagnoses; nephropathic cystinosis; primary microcephaly; recessive inheritance.