Bacterial pneumonia is one of the leading causes of death worldwide and exerts a significant burden on health-care resources. Antibiotics have long been used as first-line drugs for the treatment of bacterial pneumonia. However, antibiotic therapy and traditional antibiotic delivery are associated with important challenges, including drug resistance, low bioavailability, and adverse side effects; the existence of physiological barriers further hampers treatment. Fortunately, these limitations may be overcome by the application of nanotechnology, which can facilitate drug delivery while improving drug stability and bioavailability. This review summarizes the challenges facing the treatment of bacterial pneumonia and also highlights the types of nanoparticles that can be used for antibiotic delivery. This review places a special focus on the state-of-the-art in nanomaterial-based approaches to the delivery of antibiotics for the treatment of pneumonia.
Keywords: bacterial pneumonia; bioactive nanoparticles; pulmonary inhalation; traditional antibiotic therapy.