Real-Time Monitoring of the Cytotoxic and Antimetastatic Properties of Cannabidiol in Human Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells Using Electric Cell-Substrate Impedance Sensing

Int J Mol Sci. 2022 Dec 13;23(24):15842. doi: 10.3390/ijms232415842.


Cannabidiol (CBD) is an active natural compound that is extracted from Cannabis sativa. Previous studies show that CBD is a nonpsychotropic compound with significant anticancer effects. This study determines its cytotoxic effect on oral cancer cells and OEC-M1 cells and compares the outcomes with a chemotherapeutic drug, cisplatin. This study has investigated the effect of CBD on the viability, apoptosis, morphology, and migration of OEC-M1 cells. Electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) is used to measure the change in cell impedance for cells that are treated with a series concentration of CBD for 24 h. AlamarBlue and annexin V/7-AAD staining assays show that CBD has a cytotoxic effect on cell viability and induces cell apoptosis. ECIS analysis shows that CBD decreases the overall resistance and morphological parameters at 4 kHz in a concentration-dependent manner. There is a significant reduction in the wound-healing recovery rate for cells that are treated with 30 μM CBD. This study demonstrates that ECIS can be used for in vitro screening of new chemotherapy and is more sensitive, functional, and comprehensive than traditional biochemical assays. CBD also increases cytotoxicity on cell survival and the migration of oral cancer cells, so it may be a therapeutic drug for oral cancer.

Keywords: CBD; electric cell–substrate impedance sensing; oral squamous cell carcinoma cells.

MeSH terms

  • Antineoplastic Agents* / pharmacology
  • Cannabidiol* / pharmacology
  • Carcinoma, Squamous Cell* / drug therapy
  • Electric Impedance
  • Head and Neck Neoplasms*
  • Humans
  • Mouth Neoplasms* / drug therapy
  • Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck


  • Cannabidiol
  • Antineoplastic Agents