Cross-Cultural Validation of the Short Version of the Questionnaire of Olfactory Disorders-Negative Statements into Italian: Towards Personalized Patient Care

J Pers Med. 2022 Dec 4;12(12):2010. doi: 10.3390/jpm12122010.


Given the high burden of olfactory dysfunction worldwide, recently increased due to the COVID-19 pandemic, it is mandatory to adopt a specific questionnaire to assess the impact of olfactory impairment on quality of life, to be used in clinical practice. The aim of this study is to adapt and validate the short version of the Questionnaire of Olfactory Disorders-Negative Statements (svQOD-NS) for Italian. In the pilot phase, the Italian version of the questionnaire (ITA-svQOD-NS) was produced following recommended guidelines. It was then given to 50 healthy subjects and 50 patients (affected by either nasal polyposis or septal deviation), and results were compared to those of other widely used questionnaires. Test-retest reliability was assessed on a sample of 25 patients. All 50 patients repeated the questionnaires at one and nine months after surgery. The internal consistency of ITA-svQOD-NS measured with Cronbach α was excellent (α = 0.92). The intraclass correlation coefficient for test-retest reliability was also optimal (0.93; 95%CI: 0.90-0.96). Concurrent validity tested with the Pearson coefficient was significant with all other tests administered; also, concerning responsiveness, statistically significant differences were obtained between pre- and post-operative conditions. ITA-svQOD-NS showed high internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and significant correlation with all most-used clinical questionnaires; thus, it can be efficiently applied to assess olfaction-related QoL in the Italian population.

Keywords: chronic rhinosinusitis; olfactory dysfunction; quality of life; questionnaire; septal deviation.

Grants and funding

This research received no external funding.