The human body contains a very complex and dynamic ecosystem of bacteria. The bacteriome interacts with the host bi-directionally, and changes in either factor impact the entire system. It has long been known that chronic airway diseases are associated with disturbances in the lung bacteriome. However, less is known about the role of gut bacteriome in the most common respiratory diseases. Here, we aim to summarise the evidence concerning the role of the intestinal bacteriome in the pathogenesis and disease course of bronchial asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and obstructive sleep apnea. Furthermore, we discuss the consequences of an altered gut bacteriome on the most common comorbidities of these lung diseases. Lastly, we also reflect on the therapeutic potential of influencing the gut microbiome to improve disease outcomes.
Keywords: bronchial asthma; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; gut microbiome; hypoxemia; inflammation; microbiome; obstructive sleep apnea.