(1) Objective: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between dietary patterns and depression in Chinese older adults. (2) Method: A cohort study was conducted on the relationship between dietary patterns and the risk of depression in older adults based on the China Health and Longevity Longitudinal Survey (CLHLS) from 2011 to 2014. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify dietary patterns. The relationship between dietary patterns and the risk of depression after four years was examined using logistic regression, and subgroup analysis was carried out to determine whether the association differed by gender. (3) Results: A total of 2873 older adults were included in our cohort study. Three dietary patterns were identified: vegetable-egg-bean-milk pattern, meat-fish pattern, and salt-preserved vegetable-garlic pattern. The vegetable-egg-beans-milk pattern was negatively correlated with the risk of geriatric depression development (adjusted OR = 0.65 (95%CI: 0.49-0.87)), and the salt-preserved vegetable-garlic pattern was positively associated with aged depression risk (adjusted OR = 1.33 (95CI: 1.00-1.77)). The meat-fish pattern was not associated with the risk of depression in older adults. These associations were consistent in both men and women. (4) Conclusions: In this cohort study, the vegetable-egg-beans-milk dietary pattern was associated with lower risk of depression, while the salt-preserved vegetable-garlic dietary pattern was associated with higher risk of depression, and there were no gender differences in these associations.
Keywords: cohort study; depression; dietary pattern; older adults.