Seroprevalence of Influenza A Virus in Dromedaries in North-Western Nigeria

Pathogens. 2022 Dec 5;11(12):1476. doi: 10.3390/pathogens11121476.


Although influenza A virus is endemic in wild waterfowl, domestic poultry, swine, humans, bats, cetaceans, dogs, and horses, there is a paucity of data on the potential role of camels in zoonotic transmission of the virus. To estimate the seroprevalence of the influenza A virus in camel populations, four local government areas of Nigeria that share an international border with the Niger Republic were selected. Blood samples from 184 one-hump camels (dromedaries) were collected and tested for influenza IgG antigen by ELISA. Each camel's demographic variable, such as age, gender, location, production system, and usage, was recorded. The overall seroprevalence rate of influenza virus IgG in this study was 10.33% (95%CI: 6.33-15.66%). In the bivariate model, there was no significant difference in gender, age, site location and production system, except for usage. There was a significantly lower seroprevalence rate among camels used for labour (odds ratio (OR) = 0.34, 95% CI: 0.10-0.97) than those used for meat consumption; however, not after adjusting for other variables in the model. Increase surveillance through early detection, prediction, and risk assessment of pathogens in animal reservoirs and environmental contamination as One Health strategies to reduce potential human spillover is recommended. Molecular epidemiology studies could better elucidate the role of camels in the dynamics of disease transmission pathways.

Keywords: Nigeria; One Health; camels; dromedaries; environmental contamination; influenza A virus; zoonosis.

Grants and funding

This research received no external funding.