Cardiopulmonary resuscitation outcomes of dogs and cats at a veterinary teaching hospital before and after publication of the RECOVER guidelines

J Small Anim Pract. 2022 Dec 23. doi: 10.1111/jsap.13582. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Objectives: To describe and compare cardiopulmonary resuscitation outcomes at a Swiss veterinary teaching hospital before and after publication of the Reassessment Campaign on Veterinary Resuscitation guidelines.

Materials and methods: Between 2018 and 2020, hospital staff underwent various types of yearly Reassessment Campaign on Veterinary Resuscitation-based cardiopulmonary resuscitation trainings. Canine and feline cardiopulmonary resuscitation events during that period (post-Reassessment Campaign on Veterinary Resuscitation) and between 2010 and 2012 (pre-Reassessment Campaign on Veterinary Resuscitation) were identified and animal, arrest and outcome variables recorded retrospectively. Factors associated with return of spontaneous circulation were determined using multi-variable logistic regression, odds ratios (95% confidence interval) generated, and significance set at P < 0.05.

Results: Eighty-one animals were included in the pre-Reassessment Campaign on Veterinary Resuscitation group and 190 in the post-Reassessment Campaign on Veterinary Resuscitation group. Twenty-three percent in the pre-Reassessment Campaign on Veterinary Resuscitation group and 28% in the post-Reassessment Campaign on Veterinary Resuscitation group achieved return of spontaneous circulation and 1% and 4% survived to hospital discharge, respectively. Patients undergoing anaesthesia [odds ratio 4.26 (1.76 to 10.27)], elective [odds ratio 5.16 (1.06 to 25.02)] or emergent surgery [odds ratio 3.09 (1.20 to 8.00)], or experiencing cardiopulmonary arrest (CPA) due to arrhythmias [odds ratio 4.31 (1.44 to 12.93)] had higher odds of return of spontaneous circulation, while those with unknown cause of CPA [odds ratio 0.25 (0.08 to 0.78)] had lower odds. Undergoing cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the post-Reassessment Campaign on Veterinary Resuscitation period was not statistically significantly associated with return of spontaneous circulation [odds ratio 1.38 (0.68 to 2.79)].

Clinical significance: Unchanged odds of return of spontaneous circulation in the post-Reassessment Campaign on Veterinary Resuscitation period could suggest that once-yearly cardiopulmonary resuscitation training is insufficient, effects of animal and tertiary referral hospital variables confounded results, guideline benefit is limited, or that compliance during clinical cardiopulmonary resuscitation efforts is too poor for guideline recommendations to have a positive impact. More extensive cardiopulmonary resuscitation training protocols should be established, and the compliance with and outcome benefits of a Reassessment Campaign on Veterinary Resuscitation-based cardiopulmonary resuscitation approach re-evaluated prospectively.