Lipoprotein(a) and Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease, the Impact of Available Lipid-Lowering Medications on Lipoprotein(a): An Update on New Therapies

Endocr Pract. 2023 Jun;29(6):491-497. doi: 10.1016/j.eprac.2022.12.011. Epub 2022 Dec 20.

Abstract

Objective: To review evidence of existing and new pharmacological therapies for lowering lipoprotein(a) (Lp[a]) concentrations and their impact on clinically relevant outcomes.

Methods: We searched for literature pertaining to Lp(a) and pharmacological treatments in PubMed. We reviewed articles published between 1963 and 2020.

Results: We found that statins significantly increased Lp(a) concentrations. Therapies that demonstrated varying degrees of Lp(a) reduction included ezetimibe, niacin, proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitors, lipoprotein apheresis, fibrates, aspirin, hormone replacement therapy, antisense oligonucleotide therapy, and small interfering RNA therapy. There was limited data from large observational studies and post hoc analyses showing the potential benefits of these therapies in improving cardiovascular outcomes.

Conclusion: There are multiple lipid-lowering agents currently being used to treat hyperlipidemia that also have a Lp(a)-lowering effect. Two RNA therapies specifically targeted to lower Lp(a) are being investigated in phase 3 clinical trials and, thus far, have shown promising results. However, evidence is lacking to determine the clinical relevance of reducing Lp(a). At present, there is a need for large-scale, randomized, controlled trials to evaluate cardiovascular outcomes associated with lowering Lp(a).

Keywords: atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease; hyperlipoproteinemia; lipoprotein(a); lipoproteinemia.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Atherosclerosis* / drug therapy
  • Cardiovascular Diseases* / prevention & control
  • Humans
  • Hypolipidemic Agents / therapeutic use
  • Lipoprotein(a)
  • Risk Factors

Substances

  • Lipoprotein(a)
  • Hypolipidemic Agents