Reduction of radiation dose using real-time visual feedback dosimetry during angiographic interventions

J Appl Clin Med Phys. 2023 Feb;24(2):e13860. doi: 10.1002/acm2.13860. Epub 2022 Dec 24.


This prospective study sought to evaluate potential savings of radiation dose to medical staff using real-time dosimetry coupled with visual radiation dose feedback during angiographic interventions. For this purpose, we analyzed a total of 214 angiographic examinations that consisted of chemoembolizations and several other types of therapeutic interventions. The Unfors RaySafe i2 dosimeter was worn by the interventionalist at chest height over the lead protection. A total of 110 interventions were performed with real-time radiation dosimetry allowing the interventionalist to react upon higher x-ray exposure and 104 examinations served as the comparative group without real-time radiation monitoring. By using the real-time display during interventions, the overall mean operator radiation dose decreased from 3.67 (IQR, 0.95-23.01) to 2.36 μSv (IQR, 0.52-12.66) (-36%; p = 0.032) at simultaneously reduced operator exposure time by 4.5 min (p = 0.071). Dividing interventions into chemoembolizations and other types of therapeutic interventions, radiation dose decreased from 1.31 (IQR, 0.46-3.62) to 0.95 μSv (IQR, 0.53-3.11) and from 24.39 (IQR, 12.14-63.0) to 10.37 μSv (IQR, 0.85-36.84), respectively, using live-screen dosimetry (p ≤ 0.005). Radiation dose reductions were also observed for the participating assistants, indicating that they could also benefit from real-time visual feedback dosimetry during interventions (-30%; p = 0.039). Integration of real-time dosimetry into clinical processes might be useful in reducing occupational radiation exposure time during angiographic interventions. The real-time visual feedback raised the awareness of interventionalists and their assistants to the potential danger of prolonged radiation exposure leading to the adoption of radiation-sparing practices. Therefore, it might create a safer environment for the medical staff by keeping the applied radiation exposure as low as possible.

Keywords: angiography; in vivo dosimetry; radiation dosage; radiation dosimetry; radiation protection.

MeSH terms

  • Feedback, Sensory
  • Fluoroscopy
  • Humans
  • Occupational Exposure* / prevention & control
  • Prospective Studies
  • Radiation Dosage
  • Radiation Exposure* / prevention & control
  • Radiation Injuries* / prevention & control
  • Radiography, Interventional
  • Radiometry