Dietary recommendations in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis

Joint Bone Spine. 2023 May;90(3):105521. doi: 10.1016/j.jbspin.2022.105521. Epub 2022 Dec 22.


Introduction: This article presents the initial recommendations of the French Rheumatology Society (Société Française de Rhumatologie - SFR) and the Osteoporosis Research and Information Group (Groupe de Recherche et d'Informations sur les Ostéoporoses - GRIO) on the role of diet in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.

Methods: The recommendations were produced by a working group composed of rheumatologists, physician nutrition specialists and a geriatrician. Fifteen (15) questions pertaining to "daily practices" were preselected by the working group. For the literature review, the working group focussed mainly on the effects of diet on bone mineral density (BMD) and fractures, and primarily on meta-analyses of longitudinal studies and dietary intervention studies.

Results: A Mediterranean-type diet and the daily consumption of 2 to 3 dairy products are recommended. Together, these provide the calcium and "high quality" protein required to maintain a normal calcium-phosphorus balance and bone metabolism, and are associated with lower fracture risk. Conversely, unbalanced Western diets, vegan diets, weight-loss diets in non-overweight individuals, alcohol consumption and daily consumption of sodas are advised against. In terms of the beneficial effects on bone mineral density and fracture risk, current scientific data are either insufficient or too divergent to recommend increasing or restricting the consumption of tea or coffee, vitamins other than vitamin D, vitamin D-enriched or phytoestrogen-rich foods, calcium-enriched plant-based beverages, oral nutritional supplements, or dietary sources of prebiotics and probiotics.

Conclusions: These are the first set of recommendations addressing the role of diet in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. More research is necessary to direct and support guidelines.

Keywords: Bone mineral density; Diet; Fractures; Nutrition; Osteoporosis.

Publication types

  • Practice Guideline

MeSH terms

  • Bone Density
  • Calcium
  • Diet
  • Fractures, Bone*
  • Humans
  • Osteoporosis* / prevention & control
  • Vitamin D


  • Calcium
  • Vitamin D